1912: Alan Turing, the mathematician, cryptanalyst and computer scientist who was highly influential in the development of computer science and the fundamentals of modern computers, is born in London, England. During World War II, Turing worked for Britain's codebreaking center, devising a number of techniques for breaking German ciphers. He also developed the ACE, among the first designs for a stored-program computer, and the Turing machine, a hypothetical device that can be considered a model of a general purpose computer. Turing was prosecuted for homosexuality in 1952, when such acts were still criminalized in the United Kingdom, and underwent chemical castration as an alternative to prison. In September 2009, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an official public apology on behalf of the government for Turing's treatment and Queen Elizabeth II granted him a posthumous pardon in December 2013.